Information for Authors


All papers, in English, should be submitted electronically to our online submission system.


Please prepare your manuscript, including tables, using a word processing program and save it as a .doc, .tex, .rtf or .ps file. The typesetters are unable to copy, edit, or typeset manuscripts or tables in pdf format.

Title Page
We advise that the title of the article be short, specific and informative. The first name, initial(s), and surname of each author should be followed by his or her department, institution, city with postcode, and country. The fax, telephone number and email address of the corresponding author should also be provided. Our policy is to list only one author for correspondence. Any changes of address may be given in footnotes. Any deletions or additions to the author list after acceptance of the paper must be submitted in writing, signed by all authors, to the appropriate editorial office.

The second page of the manuscript should contain the Abstract, which must not exceed 250 words. The Abstract should be comprehensible to readers before they have read the paper, and reference citations must be avoided at this stage.

Please indicate the level of the section headings in your article.

  • First-level headings (e.g. Introduction, Conclusion) should be in bold, left aligned with the main words capitalized.
  • Second-level headings should be in italics, left aligned, with the main words capitalized.
  • Third-level headings should be indented from the left margin, in italics and sentence case.


Non-standard abbreviations should be defined at the first occurrence and introduced only where multiple use is made. There should be no abbreviations in headings.

Figures and Illustrations
For reproduction in the journal, authors will be required after acceptance to supply high-resolution .tif files (1200 d.p.i. for line drawings and 300 d.p.i. for colour and half-tone artwork) or high-quality printouts on glossy paper. We advise that you create your high-resolution images first as these can be easily converted into low-resolution images for online submission.

Figures will not be re-lettered or re-numbered by the publisher. The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material. Any photomicrographs, electron micrographs or radiographs must be of high quality.

Wherever possible, photographs should fit within the print area or within a column width. Photomicrographs should provide details of staining technique and a scale bar.

When creating figures, please make sure any embedded text is large enough to read. Many figures contain miniscule characters such as numbers on a chart or graph. If these characters are not easily readable, they will most likely be illegible in the final version.

Color Figures
If there is a choice of colours on a schematic, please choose clearly distinct colours (e.g. not two shades of blue) and avoid black backgrounds if possible.

Any figures submitted to the journal in colour can be published in colour. Authors may choose to also publish their figures in colour in the print journal. Black and white figures will also be accepted, but figures that may be converted from colour to black and white should be well prepared with high contrast, and must have a resolution of at least 300 dots per inch at their final size. Figure captions must be suitably worded to apply to the article.

All tables submitted must be in editable format (e.g. Word, excel, ppt) as the typesetters are unable to typeset any tables in image format (e.g. pdf).

All tables should be on separate pages and accompanied by a title and footnotes where necessary. The tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals. Units in which results are expressed should be given in parentheses at the top of each column and not repeated in each line of the table. Authors are advised not to overcrowd the tables and limit the use of words. The format of tables should be consistent with what is normally used in international journals. Please note that it is the author’s responsibility to ensure that the data given in tables are correct.

Maths Elements
For guidance on setting mathematics, please see our short guide.

Acknowledgements and details of non-financial support must be included at the end of the text before references and not in footnotes. Personal acknowledgements should precede those of institutions or agencies. Please note that acknowledgement of funding bodies and declarations regarding conflict of interest should be given in separate funding and conflict- of- interest sections respectively.

Full references should be provided in accordance with the style of the Journal of African Development. These should be listed in Alphabetical order. Journal titles and author initials should be properly abbreviated and punctuated. If an automatic referencing system has been used in the preparation of the paper, the references must not be left embedded in the final text file submitted. The citation of journals, books, multi-author books and articles published online should conform to the following examples:

– Kanbur, R. (1993) ‘EC-African Relations: A Review Article of Enzo R. Grillis’s the European Community and Developing Countries’, Journal of African Economies, 2: 434-46
– Smith, M. (1990) Simplified Stable Merging Tasks, vol. 3, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-10.
– Smith, M. (1990) ‘Merging tasks, simplified’ in M. E. Smith (ed.), Simplified Stable Merging Tasks. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-10.
– McKay, A., C. Milner and O. Morrissey (2000) The Trade and Welfare Effects of a Regional Economic Partnership Agreement, CREDIT Research Paper 00/8. (Available at:

Authors should include all references in the reference list. Within- text citations should be as follows: Adebayo and Mensah (1994a,b); Adebayo and Mensah (1994). For three or more authors use: Adebayo et al. (1994a,b); (Mensah et al., 1994). Personal communications (A. Acquah, personal communication) must be authorized in writing by those involved, and unpublished data should be cited in the text as (unpublished data). References to manuscripts submitted, but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text as (A. Acquah and B. Mensah, manuscript in preparation) and should not be included in the list of references. Citations of submitted manuscripts should include all authors involved. Authors are encouraged to cite web URLs in parentheses at the appropriate mention in the text.